The events that shook the world in 2021

The most important events of the year that are worth remembering

3aff111b9a44af7881ec2a7872945d5c 8 2021, Covid-19, important events

Her pandemic COVID-19, invasion of the Capitol by supporters of outgoing US President Donald Trump, the return of the Taliban to power and the hasty withdrawal of Americans from Afghanistan, increasingly alarming reports of climate change. The following are the main events of 2021 in the world.

- H COVID-19 is still here, road race for vaccination -

Despite the hopes that the development of vaccines against her gave birth to COVID-19, the pandemic caused more deaths worldwide in 2021 (3,3 million at the end of November), bringing the total official death toll - which is greatly underestimated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) - to more than 5 million, mainly due to the more contagious Delta strain of the new coronavirus. Despite the WHO sending experts to China, the origin of the new coronavirus has still not been traced.

The approximately twenty vaccines that have been approved by men or women around the world have allowed more than 7,8 billion doses to be administered, with obvious inequalities in access between poor and rich countries, and not without resistance from vaccinators.

People have once again experienced quarantines and new locks, especially long ones in Australia's major cities.

The borders have been partially reopened. The Tokyo Olympics could be held in July, one year late and almost closed.

Since the autumn, Europe has been facing a resurgence of the pandemic, causing new restrictions and controversy. Successful clinical trials of drugs against COVID-19 gave birth to new hopes, which, however, were overshadowed by the emergence of the new variant strain Omicron of the new coronavirus, which was originally found in South Africa and which carries many mutations and may be highly contagious.

- Chaos scenes in the Capitol -

On January 6, 2021, hundreds of supporters of outgoing President Donald Trump stormed the US Capitol, trying to prevent its members from ratifying the victory of Democrat Joe Biden in the November presidential election. The chaos scenes that follow are causing a stir around the world.

Five people were killed during or shortly after the attack, including a police officer and a protester, who was killed by gunfire from a Capitol guard.

Donald Trump is exiled from Twitter, Facebook and YouTube, which accuse him of using their platforms to incite his supporters to violence before the attack.

On January 20, Joe Biden is sworn in, with his predecessor not attending the swearing-in ceremony, as he refuses to concede defeat.

Accused by the House of Representatives of "inciting insurgency" in the Capitol attack, Donald Trump was acquitted by the Senate in February following a second referral process.

- Increased repression in Russia -

On January 17, opposition and anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny was arrested on his return to Russia after recovering for five months in Germany after being poisoned, which he blamed on Russian President Vladimir Putin and his secret services.

In February, Alexei Navalny, the target of several lawsuits, was sentenced to two and a half years in prison for a 2014 fraud case he claims is politically motivated.

His organizations, which have been described as "extremist" by the judiciary, are included in the list of organizations banned in Russia in August.

- Coups and show of force -

On February 1 in Myanmar, the army arrested the head of the political government of Aung San Suu Kyi, who was placed under house arrest, ending a ten-year democratic bracket after almost half a century of military rule.

The coup is provoking violent repression: more than 1.100 civilians are being killed and thousands of dissidents are being jailed.

Aung San Suu Kyi has been the subject of much persecution and faces up to decades in prison.

In Chad, General Mahamat Debbie is proclaimed head of state by the army on April 20, the day after the death of his father, General Idris Debbie Atno, who succumbed to his wounds in battle after 30 years in power.

A second military coup in 24 months takes place in Mali on May 10th, establishing Colonel Asimi Goita as interim president.

In Tunisia, after months of political stalemate, President Kais Sagent takes office on July 25th.

In Guinea, President Alfa Conte is overthrown on September 5 by a military coup.

In Sudan, an agreement restores Prime Minister Abdullah Hamdok to the post of prime minister on November 21, while strengthening military control following the October 25 military coup. Protests against the army continue as the country began to transition to a political power after the overthrow of dictator Omar al-Bashir in 2019. Dozens have been killed since the crackdown.

- War between Hamas and Israel -

On May 3, clashes erupted in occupied East Jerusalem, on the sidelines of a demonstration in support of Palestinian families threatened with eviction in favor of Israeli settlers. Clashes then broke out between Palestinians and Israeli forces in the Mosque Square, as well as in the occupied West Bank.

Hamas, which is in power in the Gaza Strip, has been firing rockets at Israel since May 10, to which it has responded, sparking an 11-day war between the two camps. A total of 260 Palestinians are killed in the Gaza Strip, according to local authorities. In Israel, 13 people were killed by rockets fired, according to the military.

On June 13, Israel acquires a new government, led by nationalist right-wing leader Naftali Bennett, an ally of center-right Jair Lapid, in a coalition ending Benjamin Netanyahu's 12-year rule.

- Europe faces its challenges -

Britain, which left the European single market on 1 January, is facing a labor shortage, mainly in the road transport sector, which has been deteriorating since June, leading to shortages in supermarkets, pubs or fuel distribution. Brexit is also creating tensions in Northern Ireland, as well as between Britain and its neighbors, especially France, over fisheries or migrants.

In Germany, Chancellor Angela Merkel is stepping down after 16 years in power. Her departure has sparked fears of a vacuum within the EU. Olaf Soltz, leader of the Social Democrats' electoral list, is allied with the Greens and Free Democrats and will succeed her before Christmas.

In October, the Constitutional Court of Poland declared certain articles of the European treaty incompatible with the national Constitution, and in November the Constitutional Court ruled that the European Convention on Human Rights was partly incompatible with the Constitution of the country.

Europeans see it as an unprecedented attack on the supremacy of EU law.

- Extreme climatic phenomena -

Continued global warming above the desired level of 1,5 degrees Celsius, set by the Paris Climate Agreement, would have "irreversible effects on human and ecological systems," UN experts warn in a draft report. the climate, a copy of which was obtained by AFP in June.

Extreme weather conditions are multiplying: in late June, a "dome of heat" is causing dozens of deaths in Canada (up to 49,6 degrees Celsius) and in the American West.

Germany and Belgium were hit by catastrophic floods (more than 200 dead, billions in damage) in July, the hottest month ever on Earth, according to the US Science Service.

In August, record temperatures fueled fires in Turkey, Greece, Spain and Algeria. California is also facing a huge forest fire.

Madagascar is experiencing for the first time a famine due to, according to the UN, climate change.

In November, the UN International Conference on Climate Change COP26 adopts an agreement to speed up the fight against climate change. However, the "Glasgow Pact" does not ensure that the goals of the Paris Agreement are met and does not meet the demands of the poor.

- Taliban lightning victory -

On August 15, the Taliban invaded Kabul without resistance, following a lightning strike that began in May, taking advantage of the beginning of the withdrawal of US and NATO forces from Afghanistan, twenty years after their ouster. by an international coalition under the US.

A giant flyover is being set up in Kabul to evacuate thousands of Americans and Afghans who had worked with the United States.

On the 31st, the day after the last US troops left, US President Joe Biden defended his decision to end the longest-running US war, despite strong criticism of the evacuation operations.

The country, which is suffering, is facing a security crisis due to the activity of jihadist organizations, especially bloody attacks by the Islamic State - Khorasan (EI-K).

Faced with the specter of a humanitarian tragedy, the international community is wondering what position it should take on the Taliban government, especially since they are not committed, especially to respecting the rights of women and minorities.

- War scenes in Beirut -

On October 14, Hezbollah took its supporters and those of its allied Amal movement to the streets of the Lebanese capital to demand the replacement of the judge in charge of investigating the 2020 explosion in the port of Beirut (more than 210 dead). , who wants to interrogate high-ranking officials.

Protesters open fire, sparking violent incidents in which seven people, most of them members of two Shiite groups, are killed and reviving the spectrum of the civil war (7-1975). Hezbollah and Amal have blamed snipers for the Lebanese forces' Christian party, which denies the allegations.

These violent incidents add to the serious political, economic and social crisis in which Lebanon is plunged, where the political order is accused of corruption and incompetence.

- Immigration crisis on the Belarus-Poland border -

In November, thousands of migrants, mostly from the Middle East, camped in low temperatures along the Polish border on the Belarusian side, hoping to enter the EU.

The West accuses Minsk of orchestrating this series since the summer in response to Western sanctions imposed on Belarus following the suppression in 2020 of a historic opposition movement. Belarus and Russia, which deny being the source of the crisis, have criticized the EU for not accepting these people.

At least 12 migrants are killed on both sides of the border, according to humanitarian organizations.

- Space, a new frontier for billionaires -

The year 2021 marks a turning point for space tourism.

In July, Richard Branson travels into space in a vehicle of his own company, Virgin Galactic, then Jeff Bezos takes part in Blue Origin's first manned flight, which transports William Sutner, the governor of Kirk, in October. Star Trek ”.

In September, Elon Musk's first four SpaceX space tourists stay three days in space, the first orbital mission in history without a professional astronaut.

On the state side, NASA's Perseverance robotic spacecraft lands on Mars in February.

In May, China lands a small remote-controlled robot on the Red Planet. The Chinese are also building their own space station since June.