Province of Famagusta: This is how they intend to reduce the use of cars - Large study on Sustainable Urban Mobility

See the detailed Strategic Study through which Sustainable Urban Mobility will be implemented throughout the free province of Famagusta - Infrastructure for cyclists, public transport, pedestrians and road network

photo 5 exclusive, Development Projects, Road Network, SVAK, SVAK Famagusta

An Environmental Report consisting of the Strategic Environmental Impact Study (SES) of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUP) for the Wider Urban Area of ​​Famagusta District, including the Xylofagos Community was submitted by the Environmental Authority.

The Environmental Report has been carried out in accordance with the Terms of Reference for the Study of the SBAK and the provisions of Directive 2001/42/EC, regarding the assessment of the environmental impacts of certain plans and programs (EIA Directive) and the corresponding national law on impact assessment in the environment from certain plans and / or programs (L.102(I)/2005).

The main objective of this EIA is to identify the possible significant effects on the environment and the reasonable alternatives of the EMP for the Famagusta District and to propose appropriate measures to prevent, reduce and as fully as possible offset any significant adverse effects on the environment from the implementation of the Plan.

Famagusta.News presents below the entire Extended Summary of the Strategic Environmental Impact Study for the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUAK) for the free province of Famagusta.

The Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan for Famagusta Province

The government of Cyprus is going to implement Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUPs) for all urban areas in Cyprus. The purpose of this project is to develop and provide a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan for Famagusta District, based on the internationally adopted SBAK principles, which have been and are being successfully implemented in various European cities in recent years.

The SWAP for the Famagusta District region follows the same set of general objectives as defined by the EU White Paper on Transport, the SWAP Guidelines and the Terms of Reference:

  1. Financial Efficiency: Improving the efficiency and cost/effectiveness of the transport network in providing the transport of people and goods.
  2. Environmental Sustainability: Minimizing transport-related emissions and pollutants.
  3. Accessibility and Social Inclusion: Ensuring that all citizens have a choice of transport that allows access to key destinations and services.
  4. Safety: Ensuring personal safety and security in the transport system.
  5. Quality of life: Contributing to improving the attractiveness and quality of the urban environment and urban planning for the benefit of citizens, the economy and society as a whole.

Study area

The Study Area of ​​the SFAS of the Famagusta District of Famagusta was divided into two sub-areas, the immediate and the wider study area:

  • Direct Study Area of ​​SMBE: It corresponds to the boundaries of the SBAK study area for the Famagusta District, as determined by the Terms of Reference of the project.
  • Wider SMBE Study Area: It is not bounded by fixed boundaries and its extent is duly taken into account and adjusted on a case-by-case basis, given that certain environmental resources and / or environmental impacts are not always limited to specific areas.

The boundaries of the PES Direct Study Area are shown in Diagram 1.1 below.

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A variety of methods and tools were used to prepare the environmental assessment in this EIA.

The Environmental Sustainability Goals, which are known as “SMBE objectives”, with which the environmental performance of the alternative scenarios and the SEAP for Famagusta District (preferred scenario) could be measured, were used as the main evaluation method for the present study. Each identified sustainability objective has accompanying indicators, against which achievement of the objective can be measured and trends can be seen. The Main Objectives and Sub-Objectives of the SEA were developed in order to determine whether the SEAP for Famagusta District supports the wider environmental objectives as well as the more relevant local environmental issues.

In addition, the following support methods and tools were used:

  • Matrix-Based Scoring Methods and Systems
  • Mapping and Spatial Analysis
  • Results of the Transportation Model developed for the SBAK for Famagusta District

Relationship to Other Environmental Protection Plans, Programs and Objectives

A review has been carried out of other relevant plans, programs and environmental policies and legislation, which may create constraints or synergies with the objectives of the SMP. The review also served to identify existing sustainability issues, which need to be addressed during the implementation of the Plan and the SEA. The review process involved a wide range of key documents, ranging from international conventions to local plans and strategies.

Analysis and Problems of the Current State of the Environment

The analysis of the current state of the environment and the identification of environmental problems have been carried out for all the issues of the SMPE listed in Annex I of Directive 2001/42/EC and in Article 2 of the Law (L.102(I)/2005) and consists of the sectors presented in Table 3.1. In Table 3.1, the SMPE Objective for each sector is presented.

Theme and Objectives of SMBE

Air Quality

Achieving good air quality and limiting air pollution to levels that minimize harmful effects on human health and the environment.

Climatic Factors

Limiting climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and achieving a low carbon economy.

It recognizes the threat posed by climate change and strengthens preparedness and the ability to respond to its effects.

Soil / Geology

Protecting the soil and maintaining its ability to perform its functions from an environmental, economic, social and cultural point of view.

Water resources

Achieving "good" qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies.

Fauna, Flora and Biodiversity

Conserving, increasing and enhancing natural habitats and species, improving biodiversity and halting ecosystem degradation.

Material goods

Sustainable and efficient use of natural and man-made goods.


Protection, enhancement and management of the character of the landscape, maintaining and enhancing the local specificity and sense of place. Structured

Environment and Spatial Planning

Improving the quality of the built environment and creating sustainable urban communities.

Cultural, Archaeological, Architectural and Natural Heritage

Protection, enhancement and management of Cultural, Archaeological and Architectural Heritage elements. Socio-Economic Environment Enhancing the growth potential of the economy, creating more and better jobs and more attractive places to live, invest and work.

Population, Human Health and Quality of Life

Achieving a high level of quality of life, health and well-being.

Consultation with Government Departments and other Stakeholders in the Context of the Preparation of the SBAK and the SMBE Process

In the context of the preparation of the SBAK and the SMPE process, various meetings and consultations were held with Government Departments and other stakeholders. Their input was duly taken into account in the SMPE.

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Alternative Scenarios

Within the framework of the development of the SEAP for Famagusta District, a number of different scenarios were developed and evaluated. The selection of alternative approaches was based on the development of three mobility scenarios and three land use scenarios. The combination of mobility and land use scenarios amounts to nine different scenarios. These are assessed in relation to the environmental objectives of the EIA, using the results of the Transport Model, as well as qualitative methods.

The No-intervention scenario was used as a reference/baseline scenario for comparison purposes, in the context of the impact assessment of the preferred scenario.

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Mobility Scenarios

Scenario 1: Business-as-usual (BAU)

The "Business-As-Usual" scenario is the one where there is no significant change in the practice applied until now throughout Famagusta Province. This is the "basic" scenario and represents something that can be easily implemented.

Scenario 2: "Sustainable Individual Mobility"

The "Sustainable Individual Mobility" scenario refers to the sphere of personal or individual mobility. The measures included in this scenario aim to implement better and sustainable options to create a sustainable mobility portfolio. The aim is to start to provoke (or lay the groundwork for) the idea of ​​a shift away from personal cars, encouraging the residents and tourists of Famagusta District to switch to more sustainable forms of transport by the year 2030.

Scenario 3: "Sustainable Integrated Mobility"

The 'Sustainable Integrated Mobility' scenario provides a set of measures that link the needs of both the individual and the community. This is the largest and most advanced scenario proposed and is the final evolution of the previous two scenarios. It strongly focuses on the implementation of the modal shift from individual to collective forms of mobility, aiming to completely transform the lifestyle and experience of Famagusta District today, eliminating most of the car-centric designs in use and replacing them with more inclusive, user-friendly pedestrians and bicycles.

The aforementioned mobility scenarios include a variety of different measures, all of which have emerged from a group of nine thematic areas: Cycle Network, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), Freight Transport, Parking Policies and Infrastructure, Pedestrian Networks, Public Transport, Road Network, Shared Mobility, and Travel Management. Each mobility scenario includes a number of these measures, with Scenario 1 including the fewest of the following measures and Scenario 3 including all of the following measures.

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Summary table of measures per Thematic Area:

Cycling infrastructure

  • Cyclist Network Expansion Program
  • Improved visibility at road intersections and bicycle crossings
  • Advanced traffic light systems and separated bicycle turning lanes at junctions
  • Bike parking and storage at key locations
  • Lighting enhancement for cycling infrastructure
  • Improving readability of available cycling infrastructure

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)

  • Implementation of a traffic control system for the management of signalized intersections in real time, with the aim of increasing the performance of the network.
  • Application of real-time dynamic signage with parking availability within the central areas of Paralimni, Ayia Napa and Protaras (seasonal/mobile app management)


  • Limitation of access of VFOs to the central areas of Paralimni, Ayia Napa and Protaras, in limited time frames.
  • Suggested off-peak times are before 7.00am, between 10.30am and midday and after 8.00pm.
  • Creation of areas close to the central areas of Paralimni, Ayia Napa and Protaras and other tourist areas where freight transport could easily and immediately park the VFOs and complete pickups or deliveries using small trolleys or supply bikes (the service provided by their company or other bodies).

Parking Policies and Infrastructure

  • Consistent parking policy across the area (eg make on-street parking more expensive than off-street parking).
  • Definition of an integrated fare system for the use of mobility services
  • Paid parking application in the central areas of Paralimni, Ayia Napa and Protaras (seasonal).
  • Removal of on-street parking where space is required to widen sidewalks and/or bike lanes.
  • Implementation of park & ​​rides/multimodal hubs/park & ​​pedal.
  • Policies aimed at reducing private car ownership.

Pedestrian networks

  • Improvement of pedestrian crossing facilities on roads.
  • Improved visibility at intersections and pedestrian crossings.
  • Lighting enhancement for pedestrian infrastructure.

Public transportation

  • Reduction of imbalances between summer and winter public transport provision.
  • Analysis of service routes, number and location of bus stops to increase public transport accessibility for locals and tourists
  • Definition of an integrated fare system for transfer nodes (park & ​​ride / multimodal nodes).
  • Evaluation of on-demand services during the winter season.
  • Action plan for taking bicycles on buses.

Road Network

  • Stream cutting – Reduction of road surfaces in favor of pedestrians and other means of transport, in the central areas of Paralimni, Ayia Napa and Protaras (possibly in all other urban centers depending on the needs).
  • Classification of urban roads based on geometric features, urban context and urban functions.
    Residential Zones & Zone Plan 30 (Speed ​​Limit 30 km/h).

Shared Mobility

  • Expansion of the bicycle sharing system throughout the province, especially in the areas of Paralimni, Ayia Napa and Protaras.
  • Cooperation with private entities to encourage them to implement car clubs in Famagusta District.
  • Electric scooter sharing system application.

Travel Management

  • Cycling training programs for all school age children.
  • Promotional programs for all age groups, bicycling ambassador program, annual bike days, cycling races, etc.
  • "Safe Routes to School" Program.
  • Information campaigns for students.

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Land Use Scenarios

Scenario 0: "Planned Dispersal"

This is the existing land use situation. For example, the development of each municipality and community is distributed internally to the available sites in terms of housing capacity and takes into account the development of planning zones in accordance with existing Local Plans and the Countryside Policy Statement. This approach can offer many benefits that contribute to sustainable urban development and improved mobility, but also a number of disadvantages that can affect sustainable mobility. The area may have multiple activity centers, which allow residents to access certain recreational services within shorter distances, thereby promoting walking, cycling and shorter commutes. However, the dispersion of essential or government services will discourage walking and cycling due to the longer distances to these services. The scattered development approach focuses on spreading urban development throughout the city, which also goes against the principles of sustainable development.

Scenario 1: "Concentrated Development"

The concentrated development approach refers to the strategy that focuses on the direction of urban development and activities towards the two large municipalities of the region, the Municipalities of Paralimni and Ayia Napa. Such approaches often lead to dense urban cores with a high concentration of businesses, services and population in the concentrated areas. Concentrated growth is likely to lead to increased traffic congestion, car dependency and challenges in managing transport demand in concentrated areas. The concentration of activities and services, on the other hand, is also expected to increase active mobility.

Scenario 2: "Polycentric Development"

It refers to the development of multiple centers of economic activity and is concentrated in the four municipalities that exist in the province. It also takes into account the Local Government Reform and the creation of the New Municipalities of Agia Napa (which will incorporate the Municipality of Sotiras) and the new Municipality of Paralimni-Derynia. A multi-centred development approach to the planning of SMPs offers many benefits for addressing urban mobility challenges and promoting sustainable development in cities. Centers may have their own employment opportunities, amenities and services. It focuses on creating interconnected hubs that reduce the need for long journeys to a single central business district. The multi-centre development approach can also lead to reduced travel distances and increased use of public transport, especially if public transport between centers is well-planned and efficient.

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Evaluation of alternative scenarios

The benchmarking was carried out for the three mobility scenarios, including the impact of the land use scenarios proposed. The results of the Transportation Model, which reflect the impact of the land use scenarios, further help the evaluation to better understand the environmental impact and sustainability of the three mobility scenarios.

The assessment showed, as expected, that the BAU Scenario, which proposes the fewest measures, is likely to have the least positive impact, while the Sustainable Integrated Mobility Scenario, which proposes the most mobility measures, has the most positive impacts. Small additional positive impacts were observed for the Sustainable Integrated Mobility Scenario compared to the Sustainable Individual Mobility Scenario.

Both the Multi-centred and the Centralized approach contribute to sustainable urban mobility by reducing congestion, promoting active transport and enhancing public transport options. They therefore support sustainable urban development, promote active mobility and create more resilient and sustainable cities for the future.

Despite the marginally better performance demonstrated by the Transport Model for Scenario 3.1 (Sustainable Integrated Mobility / Concentrated Development Scenario), it is important to highlight one key factor: the Polycentric scenario aligns more fully with the Region's vision in relation to land use, as highlighted in the Department of Town Planning and Housing and the Famagusta District Local Plan 2020. In addition, the Polycentric scenario takes into account the expected division of Local Authorities as part of the upcoming Local Government Reform, thus incorporating a more holistic vision for the Region.

Therefore, Scenario 3.2 (Sustainable Integrated Mobility Scenario / Polycentric Development) is the environmentally preferred scenario, in agreement with the decision of the Steering Committee regarding the Scenario that will be further developed and will form the SBAK for Famagusta District.

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Assessment of the Impacts on the Environment from the Implementation of the SBAK

An extensive assessment of the potential significant environmental impacts that may occur due to the implementation of the EMP for Famagusta District (selected scenario), was conducted in accordance with the EIA Directive and National Legislation. The results are summarized below:

Air Quality

In the study area, private vehicles are the largest contributor to atmospheric emissions through direct exhaust emissions due to hydrocarbon combustion engines. Additionally, the current composition of the vehicle fleet consists mainly of older vehicles that are less environmentally friendly than more modern ones.

The implementation of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SMP) will have a positive impact on ambient air quality, as the proposed strategies aim to transition from car use to more sustainable and less polluting means of transport, such as public transport, walking and cycling .

With regard to the main pollutants, based on the results of the "Emissions Factors Toolkit" used, in relation to the No-Intervention Scenario, the implementation of the measures included in the SEAP will cause a general reduction in emissions and their total volume until 2030. In particular, a 3,8% emission reduction is predicted for NOX, followed by an 11,8% reduction for PM2,5 and 12,1% for PM10.

The expansion of the cycling network, as well as measures that make cycling safer and more attractive as opposed to other modes of transport, can lead to a shift towards cycling as a primary means of transport. Likewise, improving pedestrian infrastructure and modifying the road network, especially in the urban centers of the Study Area, can also lead to reduced car use and, therefore, improved air quality. Planning and providing the basis for other modes of transport, including optimizing bus routes and simplifying and consolidating bus routes, can help increase transport efficiency and reduce the distance travelled, resulting in lower overall emissions from motorized vehicles, while improving traffic management to improve transport efficiency in general is also seen as a strategy to help with this.

In addition to the above, the implementation of the multi-centre development approach promoted by SBAK will lead to more compact mixed-use centers and thereby reduce the need and overall distance to be traveled to access daily and basic services and other amenities . Not only are greener modes of transport promoted by the SBAK for Famagusta District, but a more efficient and connected network is proposed, which allows greater reliance on these alternative modes of transport and less reliance on conventional ones.
However, during the implementation period of the EMP, minor and temporary negative impacts on air quality may occur due to the use of heavy vehicles and equipment for the construction of the proposed infrastructure. In addition, road closures and traffic diversions will need to be in place during the transition period until all works are completed.

This may therefore lead to congestion in certain areas, longer commuting times and ultimately higher levels of exhaust emissions from cars. Nevertheless, these effects will cease to exist after the completion and full operation of the SBAK.

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Climatic Factors

In Cyprus, 22% of greenhouse gas emissions are attributed to transport. The distance traveled by a vehicle, especially conventional vehicles, can also affect the amount of CO2 emissions and is affected by the efficiency of the transport network and infrastructure as a whole, as well as the characteristics of the transport infrastructure.

The SBAK proposals aim to increase the availability and efficiency of more sustainable means of transport and to discourage car use, through an integrated policy for Public Transport, walking and cycling networks and infrastructure, local travel information systems and traffic, and parking measures and policies. In addition, SVAK strategies aim to reduce the distance traveled by vehicles and optimize freight traffic routes.

The results of the Transport Model show that car use is expected to decrease by 11,5% (compared to the No-Intervention Scenario), reaching 82,9%, by 2030. At the same time, the transition to more sustainable public transport and even greener modes of transport (walking and cycling) are expected to increase. Various proposals of the SBAK work in synergy to support the reduction of the distance traveled by vehicles, from the improvement of public transport to its improved accessibility and functionality. The proposed freight measures, as well as the use of intelligent transport systems will optimize traffic flow, and also reduce congestion and travel distances.

The implementation of the multi-centre development approach promoted by the SBAK will lead to more compact mixed-use centers where people will live and work, thereby reducing the need and overall distance they need to travel to access everyday and essential services and other amenities. The results of the Transport Model showed that the implementation of the SBAK will cause a reduction of approximately 11,6% in the distance traveled by car/vehicle, compared to the "No Intervention" Scenario.

Overall, the implementation of the ETS will lead to a gradual reduction in exhaust gas emissions, including CO2. The reduction in the volume of CO2 emissions, also determined using the Emissions Factor Toolkit, reaches 7,68%, in relation to the "No Intervention" scenario until the year 2030. This reduction is not considered significant in relation to the national binding target for an overall reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 by 32%, compared to 2005 levels.

The measures proposed in the SBAK are mainly applied to existing infrastructure or paths, which will not be sealed. Based on the Medium Probability Flood Risk Map (1 in 100 years, Flood Risks Directive 2007/60/EC), some traffic proposals are located within or adjacent to the Potentially Serious Flood Risk Area (SFDR) of Lake Paralimni. However, the EMP for Famagusta Province does not propose new infrastructure in flood risk areas and therefore does not jeopardize the integrity and normal operation in the event of a flood event. In addition, new infrastructure outside flood risk areas will mainly be implemented on existing permeable footpaths and cycleways and will not affect flood risk.

Despite most measures being applied to existing infrastructure, the three Park and Ride stations proposed will require soil sealing. Although a negative impact is expected, due to the effect of soil sealing on drainage patterns, with appropriate design, and the inclusion of permeable surfaces, this impact is expected to be mitigated.

During the implementation period of the SEAP, emissions from construction sites as well as changes in traffic flows due to possible road closures and traffic diversions will show a temporary small increase in CO2 emissions, until the SEAP proposals are fully implemented / operational.
Despite the potential negative impacts during the period of construction works, the implementation of the SBAK is expected to have a positive impact on the climate of the Study Area.

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Soil / Geology

The proposed SBAK measures promote sustainable modes of transport. The impending reduction of motor vehicles and thus the reduced need for new road construction is expected to have a positive effect on the soil and geology. The reduction in impervious surfaces allows more natural infiltration of water into the soil, which can help recharge underground aquifers and prevent soil erosion.

In addition, reduced road construction activities will limit the phenomenon of soil compaction, which limits water permeability and air infiltration, resulting in the maintenance of soil structure.

The EIA measures related to the extension of the cycling network affect already existing dirt routes and this may have a minor impact on the terrain and geology in these areas. For example, the proposed measures may cause soil compaction, increased surface runoff and minor vegetation loss. Minor levels of erosion may be observed along cycle paths and footpaths.

However, this can be avoided by proper planning and the incorporation of erosion control measures, while it is also expected to lead to a long-term improvement of the existing situation of these areas in terms of soil problems.

Regarding the potential effects of the creation of parking areas (Park & ​​Rides), their implementation in areas that are not sealed is expected to cause soil compaction, surface erosion and surface runoff, as well as soil pollution. However, in general, the proposed infrastructures of Public Transport networks, pedestrians and cycleways to be created, are expected to use mostly existing road infrastructures and therefore no additional territorial problems are expected during the implementation of the plan.

Despite the minor negative impacts on the land, the promotion of the polycentric land use model is expected to limit further city expansion and the current trends of scattered development and encourage a more compact and better organized urban environment.

Water resources

The NAP proposes a variety of sustainable transport strategies based on similar strategies adopted in other countries and also based on local strategies that can be implemented. However, these strategies and infrastructures proposed among others can have both positive and negative impacts on water resources.

More specifically, water resources are polluted in two different ways: either due to pollutants that flow directly to the ground and are then transported by underground aquifer systems, or due to gaseous pollutants that are deposited on the ground. However, as cars are the most polluting form of motorized transport, traffic pollution levels are significantly higher in urban areas such as Paralimni and Ayia Napa than in rural areas.

Runoff pollutants from vehicles include particulates and heavy metals from exhaust emissions, copper from brake pads, deposits from tire and asphalt wear, and runoff amounts of oil, grease, antifreeze, and cleaners. Famagusta.News Indirectly, vehicles also contribute to polluted runoff by transporting solids from parking lots, construction sites, farmland and dirt roads.
The construction of infrastructure such as roads, pavements, parking areas, terminals will create impervious surfaces that can indirectly have negative effects on water quality in several ways such as:

  • Cause pollution due to surface runoff, which can end up in rivers or the sea if not treated effectively.
  • Cause surface runoff, which can contribute to the generation of large amounts of stormwater, increased flood risk and increased erosion.
  • Lower recharge values ​​for groundwater due to soil sealing.

The transportation measures proposed in the SEAP (which mostly incorporate sidewalks and cycleways) will be implemented mainly on existing roads and therefore will not directly affect water quality.

The construction of Park and Rides and car parks will result in soil sealing which can reduce the drainage capacity of the soil. However, if it is assumed that Sustainable Stormwater Drainage Systems (SWSS) such as the creation of absorbent pits and the use of permeable materials will be incorporated into the design, the water quality will not be negatively affected but will likely improve. In addition, the quality of surface runoff is likely to improve due to the ban on the use of cars and the promotion of the use of cycle paths and footpaths for commuting.

Also, encouraging the use of bicycles by more people and simultaneously reducing the use of private cars will reduce gaseous pollutants and other runoff such as oil, grease, etc. As a result of the reduced use of cars and therefore the reduced production of polluted runoff, the quality of of water resources can be significantly improved. In addition, the addition of new cycle paths along Lake Paralimni, Achnas Dam and Liopetriou River will not affect water resources as existing dirt roads / paths will be utilized.
In conclusion and based on all the above, no significant changes in water quality are expected. In contrast, the quality of water resources is expected to be improved by the use of sustainable stormwater drainage systems, which are assumed to be implemented at least in areas where water resources may be affected.

Fauna, Flora and Biodiversity

The study area hosts many areas rich in biodiversity such as green spaces, forests, parks, areas belonging to the Natura 2000 network, areas with diverse habitats and areas where flora species of the Red Book of the Flora of Cyprus are found.

According to the results of the Emissions Factor Toolkit for air pollutant emissions, the implementation of the Plan is expected to lead to the reduction of CO2 emissions, which is the main gas produced by motor vehicles. In order to reduce the frequency of use of these vehicles, the Plan proposes the creation or improvement of public transport infrastructure and the promotion of walking and bicycle use.

Also, noise in the study area is expected to decrease due to the transition from car use to other more sustainable forms of transport, such as the use of public transport, cycling and walking.

In addition, the promotion of the polycentric land use model will be beneficial to the natural environment in the region as it anticipates that the current trends of scattered development and disturbance of important habitats due to anthropogenic impacts will be curtailed. In addition, disturbance to wildlife from human presence, noise and light pollution will be reduced, as new anthropogenic activity will generally be limited within/near the proposed cores.

The measures of the SBAK suggest that existing roads and routes be used, and therefore it is not expected that important areas of habitats or areas where flora species are found in the Red Book of the Flora of Cyprus or wild bird species will be affected. However exceptions are (i) parts of the proposed cycle routes pass through a Natura area and (ii) for Park and Rides and for some of the proposed bus stops trees may be required to be cut down.

On the one hand, the implementation of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan will negatively affect individual flora individuals and habitats, on the other hand, the reduction of air pollutants, noise and light pollution will have a generally positive impact on the biodiversity of the study area.

Material goods

Initially, the existing road network of the study area is mainly used by cars, with limited use by Mass Transport and other sustainable measures such as walking and cycling. Therefore, there is a lack of an integrated road network, roads, pedestrian paths, cycle paths, which promotes sustainable transport measures such as public transport.

The SWAP for the Famagusta District aims at the holistic improvement of the study area's modes of transport and the overall transition to greener means of transport. More specifically, the implementation of the proposed measures is expected to have a positive impact as regards the number / length of the existing road network and the infrastructures that serve the needs of Public Transport. These proposed upgrades and additions refer to sidewalk and bike lane extensions as a means of promoting and creating a sustainable integrated road network that will meet all high design standards.

In addition, the measures proposed in the SBAK seek to reduce the use of private cars and to adopt sustainable modes of transport such as the use of public transport, walking and bicycle use. For example, the paving and reduction of pavements in favor of pedestrians in urban centers such as the center of Paralimni, aims to eliminate roads with the sole use of cars and at the same time aims to expand the cycling network. Also, the pedestrianization combined with the restriction of movement for motor vehicles and especially for heavy trucks on specific roads aims to promote the use of cycle paths and pedestrian paths as the study area will be significantly relieved of the increased traffic of motor vehicles.

In addition, upgrading the existing infrastructure used by buses and adding new bus routes will lead to a more reliable and efficient public transport system in conjunction with the implementation of intelligent transport systems and the adoption of policies for parking and limited car access in the central urban cores.

Also, it is expected that all transport projects proposed by the SBAK will be implemented

using modern and sustainable design, construction techniques and materials according to the required specifications Therefore, it is considered that the increase in the number and duration of new transport projects within the study area will lead to a general increase in the quality and life of the road network , simultaneously reducing the need and frequency of maintenance.

The strategies proposed in the SBAK aim to achieve the polycentric development of the study area, improving the quality of life of citizens and promoting the use of sustainable modes of transport. Therefore, overall the implementation of the SBAK will lead to significant positive impacts on Material Goods within the study area.


Currently motorized use and existing infrastructure take up valuable land in the core of communities, create traffic congestion, cause high noise levels and degrade air quality. The aforementioned threaten the landscape of the study area, reducing the quality of the urban environment.

The various components of the PES will work synergistically to improve the existing transport infrastructure and the urban fabric, but also the natural features of the landscape, thus contributing to the restoration and cumulative improvement of the local character of the landscape.

The SBAK proposes upgrades and expansions of transport infrastructure according to standardized and high-quality design specifications, with an emphasis on Public Transport, walking and bicycle use. As suggested by tactical urbanization, a modern and effective way to redefine and redesign the landscape is to make it more human-centered. Famagusta.News In addition, it contributes to shaping the visual image of a sustainable, attractive and safe area. Finally, properly designed street lighting, during the night hours, can create the desired atmosphere and improve the appearance of the roads, while providing a sense of safety.

Additionally, the SBAK proposes the pedestrianization of commercial streets in the cores of Municipalities and communities, in combination with the restriction of motorized traffic in selected areas. The combination of pedestrian and commercial streets at the community level will help to improve the vibrancy of the historic and cultural areas, further promoting the preservation and development of the urban landscape. In addition to the pedestrian plans, some of the extensions of the cycling network will be implemented near Natura 2000 areas and therefore locals and tourists will have the opportunity to cycle and at the same time appreciate the unspoiled and natural landscape.

In terms of implemented Policy Provisions, promoted by the Local Plans and Policy Statement governing the planning framework of the study area, have led to scattered development with a strong dependence on cars. This has generally resulted in the encroachment or encroachment of residential areas into or near the surrounding countryside and coastline, with impacts on the quality and scenic value of the natural environment. Consequently, the promotion of the polycentric land use model advocated by the proposed scenario can limit the further expansion of the city and encourage a more compact and better organized urban environment. Such an approach combined with the proposed mobility scenario, will lead to better quality sustainable urban landscapes, in line with the aesthetically more desirable character of the historic city centers, and surrounding municipalities/communities, while limiting further impacts on the natural landscape.

However, the possible additions of signs and other infrastructure to the proposed bike lanes may affect the landscape of the area. Furthermore, the easy access of Natura 2000 sites will potentially lead to higher levels of pollution caused by uncontrolled waste disposal. Similarly, the implementation of Park & ​​Rides threatens existing open spaces and can potentially affect the landscape, especially if their design is not relevant to the existing architectural style and character of the area. However, the aforementioned are not expected to have a significant impact on the landscape as they will be designed according to sustainability principles while enhancing the landscape.

Overall, the implementation of the SBAK will have a significant positive impact on the landscape of the study area.

Built Environment and Spatial Planning

Taken as a whole, the NAP will have a strong direct impact on the availability of sustainable means of transport and the quality of transport infrastructure. This will lead to an improvement in the quality of public transport services, a safe and integrated cycling network and an improved walking experience with improved visibility, low speed zones and car-free pedestrian walkways.

The measures proposed by the SBAK will lead to the occupation of less space by motor vehicles and the occupation of more road space by other vehicles. At the same time, the pedestrianization projects combined with the landscaped areas that may be created as part of the proposed infrastructure projects will improve connectivity and increase the availability of public open spaces.

In addition, implementing park and ride facilities and eliminating on-street parking can lead to more efficient land use in urban areas. Instead of large inner-city parking lots, which consume valuable space and contribute to heat island effects, it is proposed to create Park&Rides, which are usually located in the suburbs where land is more available. This helps preserve green spaces and reduce urban sprawl.

Development Plans contain policies that attempt to prevent sprawl and increase population density to achieve sustainable mobility. Although the main transport policies of the Development Plans state that they promote sustainable transport policies, such as discouraging the unnecessary expansion of residential and other development zones, generous parking standards and the promotion of road development conflict with the principles of sustainable mobility. These conflicts have created a sprawling urban area with a heavy dependence on cars. This policy may need to be reviewed to promote the development of compatible mixed land uses that will reduce travel distance and time. It is worth noting that a new Local Plan is currently being prepared to cover the areas of Deryneia, Paralimni and Ayia Napa.

The fact that a participatory process with the public and key stakeholders, including members of the Department of Town Planning and Administration, was carried out for the development of the SEAF further contributes to the smooth integration of SEAF recommendations into the Development Plans. The SBAK for Famagusta District and the current Development Plans have a lot in common and both follow the principles of sustainable development. As such, the SEAP can be seen as a complementary document to the area's Development Plans, as it adds depth, reinforces and updates existing planning policies, and provides tools to guide the upcoming revision of Development Plans.

The proposed polycentric urban development will directly contribute to enhancing the benefits of the proposed traffic policies. By concentrating population growth in specific urban and peri-urban centres, the SMP will enhance the existing built environment, reduce commuting distance and discourage uncontrolled urban sprawl.

The above will ensure that the region benefits from greater availability of travel options and quality transport infrastructure, which are well integrated into the built environment.

Cultural, Archaeological, Architectural and Natural Heritage

The level of access to sites of valuable cultural, archaeological, architectural and natural heritage will be directly improved by the implementation of the SBAK. In particular, the proposals for cycling, walking and public transport networks will allow more people to move quickly, safely and comfortably in the above mentioned areas, ensuring that all these areas are more accessible for all ages and social groups and not only exclusively for car owners.

In addition, the bicycle network and pedestrianization projects proposed will enhance the environment of such places and make visits more enjoyable. Proposed infrastructure can also be designed to minimize soil compaction and erosion while preserving sensitive landscape and archaeological features. Parking measures and policies, as well as modifications to the road network in favor of infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians and the improvement of the Public Transport network, further promote sustainable modes of transport. These will make your visit experience safer and more enjoyable.

The reduction in the presence of cars and the proposed pedestrian-oriented design of the built environment may attract cultural investment from national and international organizations to the area. Famagusta.News In conclusion, sustainable modes of transport offer a more inclusive and accessible way for people to explore cultural and natural heritage sites. As a result, it is likely that the sites will increase their revenue and visitor numbers, which will also then incentivize and lead to more funds for their protection, promotion and restoration.

As an indirect and secondary result of the PESCO policies, the protection of cultural, archaeological, architectural and natural heritage landscapes will improve in the long term. This is because reducing car traffic and switching to less polluting means of transport (public transport, walking and cycling), will lead to a consequent reduction in the pollutants that cause acid rain (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen), which destroy important cultural and historic outdoor spaces.

Overall, the implementation of the PES will have a significant positive impact on the Cultural, Archaeological, Architectural and Natural Heritage of the study area.

Socio-economic Environment

The set of measures proposed by the SBAK is expected to enhance employment opportunities and attract more business opportunities. More specifically, improved pedestrian crossing facilities, improved visibility at road intersections and enhanced lighting for pedestrians will indirectly and in the long run lead to increased visitor numbers and attracting more investment. In addition, reducing the heavy presence of private vehicles will provide more space for pedestrians, making central areas more accessible and better connected. Famagusta.News Positive reinforcement of this image of the central areas, ensures that the centers will be pleasant for walks, safer and more accessible for all. This will also encourage people to visit the central areas on a more regular basis.

In addition, the improved attractiveness of these areas, the availability of safe and affordable sustainable travel options, combined with new investment opportunities will help increase the number of tourists in the region, further increasing the commercial market.

Sustainable socio-economic development is also expected from the improvement and redesign of the Public Transport network. This can indirectly provide people with the opportunity for free mobility, whereas previously they had to rely on others to travel. It is important to mention that reducing travel time and/or replacing car travel time with sustainable means of transportation will allow workers to have a more productive daily routine.

In addition, the SBAK will offer better access to these centers through urban planning tools (proposed multi-centre scenario) and transport measures, allowing people who were forced to use a car in the past to move to the city center by alternative means or live close to services, reducing their monthly transportation costs.

The overall measures and actions of the SBAK will have a direct positive impact on the share of transport options for all population groups, resulting in a reduction in car use and an increase in the use of public transport, walking and cycling alternatives which are safer, more comfortable, cheaper and more accessible for all population groups.

Population, Human Health and Quality of Life

Collectively, the SBAK strategies will have multiple positive impacts on the quality of life and health of local people. The proposed policies and measures will have the effect of directly improving the availability of open green spaces, the quality and coherence of existing pedestrian and cycling networks and encourage people to walk and move more, promoting active transport and providing public spaces where locals can relax, exercise, de-stress and interact with others.

Also, cycling and walking can improve both physical and mental health and reduce the chances of developing health problems.

Improving road safety is a key objective of the SBAK and with its implementation, low-speed zones, pedestrianization, construction specifications of sidewalks, the integrated bicycle network and organized parking management will have a direct positive impact on traffic safety. Likewise, smart transport system measures can significantly reduce the time spent inside vehicles and locally reduce the level of air pollution. This measure can be of vital importance for human health especially in the summer season when more people use the road network.

The Public Transport measures aim to eliminate imbalances in current services and redesign an efficient transport network. It is expected that an efficient Public Transport network will contribute to the reduction of traffic congestion and therefore to the elimination of CO2 emissions. Such measures are expected to improve air quality and increase mobility and accessibility within the area. In the long term, the optimization of the Public Transport network, in synergy with the other proposals, will improve access to open spaces, offering more leisure options for residents, improving their quality of life, health and well-being.

In the long term, it will reduce car use and ownership, reducing the dominance of vehicles on the road and creating a safer environment for the most vulnerable road users. Alternative transport options and shorter distances between destinations will allow citizens to continue their daily routine without the need for a car.

Despite the fact that cycling safety is expected to improve through an integrated and integrated cycling network, cyclists are currently forced to share road space with cars, trucks and buses, which currently puts their health at risk. By providing designated space for the cyclist and supporting the proposed awareness campaigns, cycling will become a safer and more reliable travel option.

However, when implementing cycling infrastructure, conflicts may occur in shared bus and bicycle lanes, when buses stop to pick up or drop off passengers, thus delaying cyclists, or when cyclists move in front of buses, delaying buses due to of their lowest speed. Another negative impact on the health of cyclists can arise from shared bus and bicycle lanes which can lead to cyclist exposure to bus fumes.

More generally, the implementation of the SBAK will reduce traffic noise levels in the long term, especially in the city center, due to the roads that will be converted to car-free streets and the proposed low-speed areas. The measures as a package will have a long-term impact on the region and provide alternative options for travel in an area currently dominated by private car use. It is important to note here that the proposed measures are all complementary to each other, each having a specific effect that collectively will have an overall positive impact.

Mitigation Measures

The measures proposed by the EIA to mitigate the expected impacts are presented below. Given that the majority of the environmental impacts expected from the implementation of the SEAP for Famagusta District are positive in nature, many of the proposed measures relate to environmental enhancement rather than strict mitigation, in order to improve the environmental performance of the SEAP proposals and the situation of the natural environment of the study area.

Air Quality

a. Preparation of Traffic Management Plans for the implementation period of the SBAK.

It is recommended that a comprehensive Strategic Traffic Management Plan be drawn up by the Competent Authority, in accordance with the SBAK Implementation Plan, to manage traffic and related pollution and limit disruption to travel routes / patterns during the SBAK implementation period.

In addition to this Strategic Plan, specific Traffic Management Plans should be implemented at Project level, which should be prepared by all Contractors involved in the implementation of the SBAK. Famagusta.News Indicative measures set out in the Plans include alternative routes for the public, predetermined routes for heavy vehicles, signage, security measures and public information.

b. Provisions for Private Electric Vehicles (PEVs)

The binding target set for Cyprus is a 32% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, outside of the European Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading System (ETS), by 2030, compared to 2005 greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, with regard to the use of renewable energy sources in the transport sector, a target of 14% has been set.

Therefore, to achieve the aforementioned goals, mobility plans should promote all possible measures and infrastructure in terms of alternative and greener modes of transport. However, apart from the electric buses and small vans proposed for the freight needs of the pedestrian centers, the SBAK does not include proposals for electric vehicle infrastructure, so the SMBE suggests considering such provisions either in the context of the SBAK or the National Policy.

Such infrastructure can range from the installation of charging stations at strategic points to meet the needs of the city and its region, to the creation of mobile applications for the promotion and functionality of the HO network (e.g. an application that shows the location of charging stations, the availability of charging stations and information on the estimated charging time of the vehicles).

c. Planting trees in the appropriate locations

Planting and growing trees, which can help reduce global warming and climate change by removing CO2 from the atmosphere, should be done in suitable locations to filter pollutants and improve air quality, in project level but also on a wider scale.

It is proposed that endemic trees and shrubs be incorporated into the design of all proposed SBAK projects. Incorporating trees can provide shade, improve landscaping, reduce ground heat, block noise, improve air quality, and reduce greenhouse gases. Consultation on the appropriate types of trees to be planted should be undertaken with the Forestry Department during the planning phase. Famagusta.News The areas that need special attention and the creation of a green zone to deal with air pollution and noise pollution include the residential areas adjacent to the highway and main roads.

d. Promotion of car sharing (Carpooling / Ride-Sharing)

Shared Mobility measures are considered effective strategies to alleviate traffic congestion, reduce the number of vehicles on the road and therefore reduce overall emissions in urban areas. In addition to the Shared Mobility proposals of the SBAK, it is proposed to strengthen the measures by promoting car sharing services.

By encouraging residents to share journeys, the road network can become more efficient, less polluting and more accessible for all, leading to improved air quality and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Awareness campaigns should be launched to educate residents about the benefits of carpooling, including reduced travel costs, reduced traffic congestion and environmental benefits.

e. Digital platforms and applications

It is proposed to provide user-friendly Shared Mobility applications that facilitate the public by enabling real-time route optimization and cost sharing.

The following implementation actions are also recommended:

  • Provide incentives and rewards, such as reduced parking fees or dedicated carpool and carpool lanes, to encourage participation.
  • Partnering with businesses to promote Shared Mobility among employees by providing dedicated parking, flexible work hours or employer-sponsored ride sharing programs.
  • Establish safe and convenient pick-up/drop-off zones to encourage the use of ride-sharing services.
  • Designation of lanes, reserved exclusively for shared mobility vehicles, providing a faster and more efficient route.
  • Encouraging community organisations, local groups, businesses and universities to promote shared mobility as a viable and convenient transport option.

f. Promotion of low emission vehicles

Provide promotion and incentives for the adoption of low-emission vehicles such as electric cars and hybrid vehicles. This encourages the transition away from traditional fossil fuel powered cars. It is important for the government to invest in an extensive network of electric vehicle charging stations to address range anxiety and encourage adoption.

In addition, it is proposed that the government work with taxi companies, delivery services and other commercial fleets to transition their vehicles to more modern technologies, reducing emissions.

Regarding public transport, the Ministry of Transport and Intercity Buses signed a contract in April 2022 which will last for 10 years (until 2032). The contract using the existing fleet of intercity buses will enable the integration of intercity routes with more frequent public bus routes connecting cities across Cyprus. It is understood that city bus contracts expire in 2030.

It is therefore unlikely that low-emission buses will be made available before their contracts expire, however, the government should start planning for new contracts and ensure that all new bus fleets are not traditional fossil fuel vehicles. This will also help achieve Cyprus' 2030 and 2050 energy and climate targets.

g. Promotion of telecommuting and teleworking

Companies should be encouraged to implement flexible working arrangements such as telecommuting and telecommuting options to reduce the number of commuters.

The following implementation actions are suggested:

  • Develop targeted awareness campaigns to educate employers and employees about the benefits of telecommuting and telecommuting, including reduced commuting stress, improved productivity and environmental benefits.
  • Work with employers to establish flexible work policies that allow employees to work remotely on set days, reducing the need for daily commutes.
  • Providing training and skills development programs to improve remote workers' work abilities and ensure productivity. Famagusta.News
  • Define performance index and guidelines for remote work, to maintain accountability and ensure quality of work.

h. Education and awareness campaigns

Conduct public education and awareness campaigns on the effects of air pollution, encouraging behavioral change and promoting more sustainable transport options. These may include multimedia campaigns, interactive workshops and webinars, informing schools and universities and engaging the local community.

Climatic Factors

a. The preparation of specific measures / actions to mitigate the effects of climate change, including floods.

It is recommended that all projects located within Potentially Severe Flood Risk Areas be designed and constructed with suitable permeable materials and incorporate the use of sustainable stormwater drainage systems where possible.

It is also recommended that the Competent Authorities (Department of Urban Planning and Housing, Department of Public Works, Department of Environment, etc.) define specific measures and conditions for all traffic developments in Famagusta, based on adaptation to climate change.

It is proposed that the measures to adapt the projects to climate change are linked to the conditions of the permits of any new project in the area and to be imposed by the Competent Authorities. Conditions could include adaptation/mitigation standards such as recommendations for durable materials, modification of drainage systems to include sustainable urban stormwater drainage systems, methods to enhance natural protection and increase the resilience of proposed transport projects to climate change and its effects.

b. Low-emission Public Transportation.

It is proposed to change the public transport fleet to electric or hybrid vehicles to minimize local emissions and reduce air pollution, especially in densely populated areas.

The Ministry of Transport and Intercity Buses signed a contract in April 2022 which will last for 10 years (until 2032). The contract using the existing fleet of intercity buses will enable the integration of intercity routes with more frequent public bus routes connecting cities across Cyprus. It is understood that city bus contracts expire in 2030.

It is therefore unlikely that low-emission buses will be made available before their contracts expire, however, the government should start planning for new contracts and ensure that all new bus fleets are not traditional fossil fuel vehicles. This will also help achieve Cyprus' 2030 and 2050 energy and climate targets.

Soil / Geology

a. Minimize ground sealing.

Soil sealing may be carried out during the construction of cycle paths and footpaths (road upgrading). It is recommended during the design process of proposed projects that soil sealing be minimized and if unavoidable, permeable materials be used where possible.

b. Preparation of measures to prevent erosion in the area.

It is proposed to implement measures to control erosion in the area. This can be achieved by devising actions / measures which could be jointly developed with the Government Competent Authorities (such as the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Environment, the Department of Water Development and any other relevant Competent Authority). Next actions could include some measures and guidelines, to be used by the Authorities and contractors for Projects in the area (eg mapping and regular monitoring of sensitive areas where erosion is expected could be used as a preventive measure ).

c. Implementation of Green Infrastructure

Recognizing the vital role that green spaces, parks and urban forests play in maintaining soil health and promoting a sustainable urban environment, this mitigation measure supports the seamless integration of these natural elements into the urban fabric. Green spaces should be designed to collect and manage stormwater runoff, minimizing soil erosion. In this way you also strengthen the biodiversity of the area.

d. Sustainable Land Use Planning

To ensure a balanced and sustainable development that preserves natural landscapes and agricultural land, development and implementation of zoning regulations that prioritize green spaces while maintaining mobility needs are required. For this reason, it is recommended that these regulations be incorporated into the area's development plans to limit urban sprawl and protect agricultural land.

e. Landscape architecture guidelines

This measure proposes the development of guidelines and regulations that emphasize the use of native plants and trees, which are adapted to the local soil conditions of Cyprus. The above measure can be incorporated into new transport systems, during the design of green corridors, along footpaths and cycle paths and others. By promoting the integration of native species into urban landscapes, the measure aims to enhance biodiversity, conserve water resources and contribute to the overall ecological resilience of Cyprus. The implementation of the above measure requires cooperation with the Department of Forestry, with Ecologists, Botanists and local experts to create a list of native plant species. The guidelines should describe the benefits of using native plants as well as provide planting and maintenance recommendations.

Water resources

a. Measures to improve surface runoff and water quality in their catchments.

In order to improve water quality and reduce the volume of runoff from the proposed SBAK transportation projects, the following measures are proposed:

  1. Conduct regular monitoring in water resources and the sea to identify sources of pollution and take measures such as implementing sustainable stormwater drainage systems and installing oil/water separators in appropriate locations.
  2. Construction of all proposed projects incorporating sustainable stormwater drainage systems where possible (such as the use of permeable materials) in accordance with best practice guides to allow for water absorption.
  3. Protection of natural drainage patterns is recommended for the construction of any new conveyance systems. The implementation of the measures must not affect the alteration of streams, rivers and wetlands. This will maintain the natural balance of water movement and reduce erosion risks.
  4. Construction of all pedestrian and cycle paths with simultaneous integration of green spaces. This minimizes sealed surfaces, allowing for better water absorption.
  5. Consultations with the Department of Water Development, Department of Public Works, Municipalities, Communities and other stakeholders to ensure that the WMP is aligned with their water quality conservation objectives.

Fauna, Flora and Biodiversity

a. Integrating Green Infrastructure into transport projects.

In the transport sector, the integration of Green Infrastructure can significantly contribute to achieving good water quality, enriching aquifers, mitigating the effects of hydromorphological pressures and limiting the impacts caused by climate change and flooding. It can also bring about a reduction in the carbon footprint, mitigating the negative effects of fragmentation and loss of ecosystems and biodiversity. In addition, the integration of green infrastructure can improve the connectivity and value of an area resulting in increased benefits from recreational activities and tourism.

It is proposed that the Competent Authorities, which are responsible for the design and implementation of the proposed projects of the SBAK, integrate Green Infrastructures. Examples of green infrastructures that can be incorporated into the EMP are landscaped areas, green areas, flowerbeds, use of permeable materials in roads or parking areas, etc. These green infrastructures can reduce the risk of flooding in prone areas as the absorption capacity will be increased of the water. In addition to the aforementioned benefits, these green infrastructures will add a variety of "green" spaces for pedestrians and cyclists, people of all ages while enhancing the ecological value of the area with the subsequent promotion of environmental awareness.

b. Early involvement of Environmental Groups and NGOs in the initial planning of major transport projects.

Environmental Groups and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) should be involved during the implementation of the EMP, such as the construction of Park and Rides. With the early involvement of NGOs and other interested parties, either positive or negative opinions will be gathered which will significantly contribute to the final decision-making in order to minimize the reactions.

Environmental Groups and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) should be involved during the implementation of the EMP, such as the construction of Park and Rides. With the early involvement of NGOs and other interested parties, either positive or negative opinions will be gathered which will significantly contribute to the final decision-making in order to minimize the reactions.

c. Reduction of Light Pollution

The implementation of measures to reduce light pollution is imperative during the implementation stage of the SBAK and the creation of new footpaths, cycle paths, parking areas, Park and Rides areas etc.. It is suggested that the lighting of the external areas be designed with care and purpose to avoid reflections and disturbances to other developments and to nocturnal birds and animals found in the area. It is also proposed that a lighting expert be added to the SBAK design team to provide appropriate specialist advice regarding the avoidance of light pollution.

Material goods

a. Supplementary Guidelines for Public Transport Infrastructure and Facilities.

Although the Department of Public Works already has guidelines for Public Transportation infrastructure and facilities, additional guidelines are proposed, which will enhance and further improve the existing and proposed transportation infrastructure within the Study Area.

The existing guidelines should be reviewed and updated in order to adhere to the principles and standards of sustainability promoted by the SEAP for Famagusta District. Also, the guidelines could include the incorporation of appropriate design, better (more sustainable) choice of materials and construction standards.

b. Guidelines for the maintenance of Public Transport infrastructure and facilities.

There are no proposals in the SBAK aimed at the regular maintenance of transport infrastructure. To address the gap, maintenance guidelines should be issued to be implemented in conjunction with the “Supplementary Guidelines for Public Transport Infrastructure and Facilities”.

The aim of the guidelines will be to reduce maintenance / replacement costs, reduce delays and provide environmentally friendly maintenance solutions for new and old infrastructure networks, taking into account the sustainability principles of the SEAP proposals. Maintenance guidelines could include instructions for:

  • Frequency of security checks.
  • General inspection of the transport network.
  • Regular maintenance and replacement (if necessary) of old or defective material.

These supplementary maintenance guidelines must also consider the effects of climate change, and recommendations for maintenance must focus on the ability of materials to adapt to or mitigate the effects of climate change.

c. Application of the principles of the Circular Economy and use of recycled materials

Applying the principles of the circular economy by promoting the reuse, recycling of materials and components from similar infrastructures. In addition, the use of recycled materials is promoted, in the extension of the life cycle of materials and the use of secondary materials and waste as productive resources in order to reduce the need for the use of primary resources while at the same time the possible minimization of environmental impacts.

d. Implementation of "Green" Policies / Practices

The integration of green procurement policies is proposed as a strategic approach for the effective implementation of the SBAK programs in Cyprus. Green procurement not only aligns with sustainable development, but also plays a critical role in promoting environmentally responsible practices during the design, execution and maintenance of projects. Green policies also prioritize the use of environmentally friendly materials and products, encouraging suppliers to adopt sustainable practices. By adopting green practices, the Cyprus Government can help increase demand for environmentally friendly products, services and technologies. This approach aligns seamlessly with the objectives of the SNAP and will help create a more sustainable and resilient urban environment.


a. Preparation of streetscape guidance document.

In order to ensure high quality streetscapes and homogeneity and to set high standards for spatial planning and transport infrastructure in the study area, it is recommended that a streetscape guidance document be developed, which will complement and form an integral part of the District's SMP Famagusta. This document should set out the key criteria for good design, material selection, installation and maintenance, and include specifications for all projects covered by the SMP, in order to achieve an attractive, functional and sustainable streetscape.

The document should be based on a set of key principles, including but not limited to:

  • Consistent and holistic approach to the design of streetscapes to ensure their homogeneity.
  • Recognition of the local special character and diversity of the areas.
  • Sustainable design.
  • Suitable design for all users.
  • Use of proven durable materials.
  • Coordination with other aesthetic control and conservation provisions, from the Development Plans and relevant antiquities legislation.

b. Improvement of green spaces.

It is proposed to increase green spaces, parks and open spaces within urban areas to provide residents of Famagusta District with access to natural environments and recreational areas. In addition, competent and local authorities can implement tree planting initiatives to improve air quality, provide shade and create a visually appealing environment. Landscapes should be designed with a variety of native plants to support local flora and fauna, promote biodiversity and reduce the need for excess water and maintenance.

Cultural, Archaeological, Architectural and Natural Heritage

a. Strict application of planning guidelines in areas of special character and in traditional settlement cores.

Based on past urban development practices, several buildings have been erected which are proposed to strengthen the existing Development Control mechanism of the Department of Town Planning and Housing to ensure stricter implementation of guidelines and protection of sensitive areas.

It is proposed to promote adjustments to the current legislation that reflect the need for stricter and more effective Development Control within the Planning System, for the developments proposed under the planning incentives of the SBAK, particularly in areas of special character, in traditional settlement cores as well as in coastal areas and areas of the Natura 2000 Network. Particular emphasis should be placed on the penalties for owners who do not meet these conditions.

b. Cultural Education and Information.

Integrating heritage education and information elements into transport system design, using signage, information kiosks and digital platforms, will promote user education about the cultural, archaeological, architectural and natural heritage of the area.

Socio-economic Environment

a. Package of measures and incentives to minimize the impact on retail activity from the pedestrianization of commercial streets.

It is recommended that the Competent Authority develop a package of measures and incentives to minimize any impact that may occur on retail activity during the implementation phase of the commercial sidewalks, but also during the short transition period after the completion of the works. Measures / incentives could be adopted holistically for enhanced outcomes or selectively if barriers are identified. Measures / incentives may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Conducting an information campaign before the work is carried out.
  • Implementation of the integrated Traffic Management Plan for the Construction Stage proposed by SMBE for the duration of the implementation period of the SBAK, to limit the disturbance of potential customers moving within commercial streets which are pedestrianized.
  • Exemption or provision of a discount on annual Municipal taxes / fees (occupational permit, waste collection, etc.) for retail businesses along the affected roads, during the construction period of the Projects.
  • Incentivize reduced bus fares for users commuting to and from pedestrianized areas.

b. Measures to provide accessible and inclusive transport for all population groups.

Providing efficient, accessible and inclusive transport for all population groups is a complex challenge that requires careful planning, innovative solutions and collaboration between stakeholders. The SDG provides a number of measures, however, below are some additional measures to achieve this goal.

  • Fare Consolidation and Subsidies: Introduce fare consolidation schemes that allow passengers to use multiple functions with a single ticket. Implementation of fare subsidies for people with low incomes, students, the elderly and other vulnerable population groups.
  • Flexible payment options: Providing flexible payment options such as contactless payment cards, mobile apps and digital wallets.
  • Affordable pricing: Set affordable fares that take into account the incomes of different population groups.
  • Mobility Platforms on devices: It is recommended to create electronic applications that allow users to schedule as well as pay for their reservation in various ways, thus facilitating accessibility to all social groups. It is also important to offer training programs to help users (such as the elderly) navigate and use public transport and digital platforms with ease.
  • Consultation and feedback mechanisms: It is proposed to create channels for users to provide feedback on the quality, accessibility and affordability of transport services, while allowing for continuous improvement and upgrading.

Population, Human Health and Quality of Life

a. Provision of measures to avoid closure of the city and community centers during construction periods of the programs.

The Competent Authority for the implementation of the programs proposed by the SBAK should examine the negative effects of the long-term constructions and take, together with the other local competent Authorities, the appropriate measures to avoid the closure of the city and its central cores.

An important measure is the provision of temporary use of spaces that can be used by the public during the extended construction periods of major projects. During the implementation of the Projects, impacts on society could be minimized by dividing the works into multiple phases and allowing (partial) temporary use of roads.

A more radical measure to avoid the paralysis of the area's cores is the inclusion of penalties for delivery delays, with residents and business owners compensated for delivery delays.

b. Reducing the impact of urban development as well as community displacement as a result of rising property values

The SBAK proposals will result in the strengthening of urban and peri-urban centres, which will lead to higher rental prices for residents and business owners. While this is inevitable and a sign of economic growth, it can also lead to displacement of communities. This negative effect can be mitigated in several ways. For example, promoting cooperation between new and existing residents of the area, as well as entrepreneurs, through various events, can create a mutual bond and a common identity for the area. In addition, the formation of housing cooperatives as well as shared workplaces can be further evaluated. The above can offer new forms of living and diversify existing housing and workplace opportunities, thus covering a wider range of people.

c. Measures to mitigate potential threats to cyclist safety in the short term.

  • In order to improve road safety and to protect cyclists in the short term and during the transition period of the SBAK, public awareness campaigns are proposed. The program's cycling strategy suggests cycling to and from school or work and can be further enhanced by other schemes such as 'Car Free Sundays', which restrict the use of cars on specific main roads every Sunday.
  • Additional training workshops for drivers would help reduce any threats to the safety of cyclists.

Recommended Monitoring Program

For the SBAK for the Famagusta District, the SMEE has proposed a comprehensive monitoring program. The majority of the monitoring practices proposed by this EIA are already carried out by Government Departments, thus avoiding the repetition of work and the waste of limited time and resources. Also, it is not necessary to monitor all parameters or monitor an effect indefinitely. As a result, a targeted approach was used, focusing on the main objectives set out in this EIA and the significant environmental impacts of the EIA for Famagusta District.


The implementation of the PES for Famagusta District is expected to have significant positive effects on the natural and man-made environment of the Study Area.

However, this is to be expected, as the NAP promotes and has been prepared according to the principles of environmental sustainability, in order to address the existing problems related to transport in the study area. The majority of negative impacts identified in the EIA are generally manageable and can be appropriately mitigated by the measures proposed in the EIA.